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Two Many One idea is to shy away from having two pawns of the same color on the same file. These are called doubled pawns. Too many pawns on the same file can be redundant and a waste of manpower. White has an extra pawn, but since the two pawns are doubled, the game is a theoretically drawn position.
Chess Opening Fundamentals King Safety: The Trump Card When all is said and done, there is only one objective: You must never forget about king safety. So far, we have discussed the significance of material, time, space, and pawn structure in the opening and the lasting effects they may have in the game. In spite of the importance of these principles, king safety trumps them all. The best way to provide a safe home for your king is to castle. Another key reason for using this maneuver is to bring a rook into the game.
The rook is worth approximately 5 points, so it is important to use this piece for open files and preparing for an attack in the middlegame. When few pieces remain, rooks are also useful in the endgame. The game starting with Diagram 2. Paul Morphy vs. Duke Karl and his assistant Count Isouard. Position after 12 Here, White has given up a piece for two pawns, leaving Chapter 2: Basic Elements of Chess Openings 27 Morphy down a net of one point. However, because of the poor king position of Black, White has a winning position.
Morphy played the perfectly timed 12 Diagram 2. He also brings the rook on a1 into the game, allowing it to control space on the d-file.
What can Black do? So Black is essentially forced to play 12 …Rd8 to defend Diagram 2. Position after 12 …Rd8. The White side has a large space advantage, but it will only prove beneficial if White can find the breakthrough in the position. I have shown this position to students, and they have most frequently recommended 13 Rd2. The idea is to play Rhd1 to double the rooks on the d-file. This is still a good move, but it will give Black a small chance to save the game.
This position leaves White up two pawns, but White will still have to demonstrate a little technique to win. White should strive for more, which is exactly what Morphy did.
Let us refer back to Diagram 2. Morphy played the stunning 13 Rxd7 seen in Diagram 2. Black is forced to play 13 …Rxd7 to avoid material loss Diagram 2. Chess Opening Fundamentals Diagram 2. Position after 13 Rxd7. Position after 13 … Rxd7. Before Black can escape the vice grip, White must add more pressure with 14 Rd1 Diagram 2. The White queen controls a lot of space, and this can only be dangerous for the Black king.
This is the right idea, but Black has taken too much time, and some pieces have yet to be developed. For this reason, Black is losing the game despite being ahead in material.
So in Diagram 2. Now Black is relatively forced to play 15 …Nxd7 Diagram 2. Position after 14 Rd1. Position after 14 …Qe6.
Patrick Wolff - The Complete Idiot's Guide to Chess [2nd Edition]
Basic Elements of Chess Openings Diagram 2. Position after 15 … Nxd7. It is time to assess the resulting position in Diagram 2. White is still down a piece for two pawns, leaving Morphy down one point.
Even though Black is up a point, the king is extremely exposed. The rook on h8 is especially useless as it controls no real squares. If you do not castle in the game, it can sometimes be a challenge to give the rook meaning. Black never had time to castle in the game and, as a result, will have a losing game.
How did Morphy hammer in the last nail in the coffin? The Chess Sage We have reached the most critical position in the entire game Diagram 2. I know you can feel it, too, but the exact moves are not so obvious.
I will attempt to simplify the thinking process. In any position in chess, imagine your pieces on the best squares possible. Once you have done that, you can figure out the steps to achieve the best position for your pieces.
Consider the best squares for the White pieces. Better yet, if you could place one piece anywhere on the board for White, where would you put it? This includes illegal moves. Once you correctly imagine this, the position afterward should be a checkmate.
Okay, there are two right answers: Chess Opening Fundamentals the king. Now, how do we actually get the queen to those squares? Refer to Diagram 2. The best way to get the queen to c8 is via b7.
What can Black do after 16 Qb7? Black has a way to escape the madness by 16 …f6. This position is materially equal, but White still has a large positional advantage.
Discover the First-Move Strategies of Champions
Also, in some variations, White will win the piece back and be up three clear passed pawns. White is clearly better, but there are chances for White to misplay the current position.
To be objective, 16 Qb7 is not the best move for White to play. What is the best move in the posiA passed pawn is a tion then? You would like the pawns on the same or adjaWhite rook to be on d8 because cent files. How does the White rook get to the d8 square if the knight on d7 is blocking the passage? The first option to always ponder is the forcing variations.
Is it possible to force the knight from d7? I know you can find the devastating blow that Morphy handed the two minds. Take your time. Basic Elements of Chess Openings 31 White gives up the queen to force Chess Language the knight from d7 so that 17 Rd8 A sacrifice means to give checkmate can be played. Morphy up material or points sacrifices a queen for checkmate.
The aim of our thinking was to remove the knight by force so that we can place the rook on d8. Black must play 16 …Nxb8 to escape the check Diagram 2. Position after 16 … Nxb8. Position after 17 Rd8. Without further ado, Paul Morphy played 17 Rd8 checkmate Diagram 2. In the final position, shown in Diagram 2. Black is up a queen and knight for two pawns but has been checkmated despite the advantage in material.
White gained more space because Black fell behind in the development of his pieces because of defending attacks. As a result, Black was never able to move the bishop on f8 to clear the space for castling.
Black ran out of time. Even though White was on the prowl for the Black king, he still found time to castle. Each element has its unique qualities, but when playing a game, they must not be viewed as separate entities. Having the benefit in one element many times can assist with the others. The five principles of material, time, space, pawn structure, and king safety should be considered one. Neglecting any of these elements can be fatal!
When one has a lead in time, it means that more pieces are active, and as a result more space is usually controlled. Since one side has more soldiers in place and more territory is gained, an attack on the enemy fort or king is very logical. Now what if, during the confrontation, part of your army is lost and scattered? The analogy to chess is that your material and pawn structure have been negotiated.
The concept: Of course, if the attack is successful, you win the game. Chess Opening Fundamentals This sounds like a very complex struggle, but we will examine the famous game played by Paul Morphy once again to get a great feel of how these elements are intertwined. You will see how following the elements is used in the opening to gain a great position.
From this model game, you will learn how the elements can be applied and evaluated in your own chess games. Hopefully you have read Chapter 2 and have already seen the results of the opening play starting from move Now we will look at the game from move one. Morphy launches off with 1 e4 Diagram 3. Diagram 3. Position after 1 e4. Statistically speaking, 1 e4 is by far the most popular first move in the history of chess. This is no random occurrence, as this move agrees with the elements.
Meanwhile, it opens up the diagonals for the bishop on f1 and the queen on d1. The Duke and the Count play 1 …e5 Diagram 3. Chapter 3: The Elements in Motion 35 Historically, 1 …e5 is the most common move in response to 1 e4, although 1 …c5 is becoming more popular today. Like 1 e4, 1 …e5 is also very conscientious of the elements, and it is a useful move for identical reasons as 1 e4. It controls space and allows other pieces to join the battle. White continues routinely with 2 Nf3, the most dominant choice of all time Diagram 3.
White develops the knight while attacking the e5 pawn and gaining a tempo time. Another plus this move offers is that it helps clear the squares for a kingside castle. Black follows with 2 …d6 Diagram 3. This move protects the e5 pawn, but no minor piece is developed. It does open up the diagonal for the bishop on c8, but that is canceled out because 2 …d6 limits the diagonal of the bishop on f8. Position after 2 Nf3.
Position after 2 …d6. In Diagram 3. Black uses the counter measure 3 …Bg4?! At a quick glance, it appears to be a decent move. Black develops a bishop and indirectly protects the e5 pawn by pinning the White knight.
For Black to maintain material equality, he must surrender the bishop. The Black bishop will make its second move of the game while capturing a knight that has only moved once time.
Chess Opening Fundamentals Diagram 3.
Position after 3 d4. Position after 3 …Bg4?! The White knight is no longer pinned. Then Black is forced to play 5 …Kxd8, forfeiting castling. White will follow with 6 Nxe5, winning a pawn. This knight threatens the bishop on g4 as well as the f7 square forking the king and rook. This is a poor choice for Black. So Black plays the logical 4 …Bxf3 instead Diagram 3. Black moves the bishop for a second time to capture a knight that has only moved once time.
Black also gives up the bishop pair, which in turn weakens the light squares. For example, in Diagram 3. A fork is an attack on two pieces or more. The bishop pair refers to the side with both the light- and dark-squared bishops. Typically, when one of these bishops is lost, the squares of that colored bishop become weak. This is especially true if the opponent still has the bishop of that color.
The Elements in Motion Diagram 3. Position after 4 dxe5. Position after 4 …Bxf3. White correctly recaptures the bishop with 5 Qxf3 Diagram 3. The other logical move would be 5 gxf3, but this creates doubled pawns pawn structure. Now White plays a move that has many great attributes: First, it develops a piece.
Second, checkmate is also threatened with 7 Qxf7. Finally, it frees up the last square for White to castle time, space, and king safety. Position after 5 Qxf3. Position after 5 …dxe5. It stops the checkmate while developing a piece toward the center. Are there any possible flaws to this move?
Morphy plays the laterally disguised 7 Qb3 Diagram 3. White moves the queen for the second time in the game, but there is a good reason. The White queen 38 Part 1: Chess Opening Fundamentals attacks the pawn on b7 and also forms a battery with the bishop on c4 that attacks the f7 square. The White queen creates a double attack, threatening to win two different pawns material.
How does Black cope with the multiple threats? Black must give up the pawn on either b7 or f7. Position after 6 Bc4. Position after 6 …Nf6. Position after 7 Qb3. Black must defend the pawn on f7, preventing mate in two: Therefore, Black moves 7 …Qe7 to protect the f7 square Diagram 3. The clear drawback of this move is that it blocks the bishop on f8. After this, White will be up a pawn material , but since the queens are gone, the game will most likely be decided in the endgame. This would still be objectively winning, yet Morphy White was not going to have that ….
Chess Language A battery is when two or more pieces queen and bishop help each other attack on the same file, rank, or diagonal. A double attack is when one piece attacks two or more different opponent pieces. Position after 7 …Qe7. White plays the powerful and poised 8 Nc3 Diagram 3. Morphy shows an unbelievable patience with the position. Most players would have captured the free pawn on b7.
However, this would have been the third time within the first eight moves that the White queen has moved time. So Morphy prefers to deploy another minor piece and control more space with 8 Nc3.
Black is blindly grateful and plays 8 …c6 Diagram 3. The idea of this move is to protect the pawn on b7 with the queen. Still, Black is not helping his cause, as he has only developed one minor piece—the knight. Position after 8 Nc3. Position after 8 …c6. White brings along another friend with 9 Bg5 Diagram 3.
This bishop pins the knight on f6 and tightens the straitjacket. It also frees up the space for White to castle on the queenside. If we closely inspect Diagram 3. Because of this lead in time and development, Morphy also controls more space. Since he has more pieces out in the open controlling more squares, he is ready to overpower his opponent. Not to be forgotten, White is also ready to castle on the very next move, while Black is three moves away.
Position after 9 Bg5. Position after 9 …b5. The Elements in Motion 41 It would be ideal for Black to play 9 …Nbd7, but White would take the pawn on b7 with 10 Qxb7 free of charge. The move 9 …b5 is also an attempt to gain a free move, forcing the bishop to retreat. Black could then try 10 …Nbd7 for a playable position. White plays the seemingly shocking 10 Nxb5 Diagram 3.
To the untrained eye, this may seem to be a surprising move since it gives up material. The main idea of this sacrifice is to open up lines and avenues toward the king. To understand this position and the move played, we must apply the elements. Despite the fact that White will lose material after 10 …cxb5, the position is as if White is up material.
This means that White has more useful and active pieces in the game. Meanwhile, Black has not moved the knight on b8, the bishop on f8 is suffocated, and the rook on h8 is absolutely meaningless. To further add to the problems, it will take too long to activate these pieces so that Black can castle. As you will see, 10 Nxb5 is absolutely justified! Position after 10 Nxb5. Position after 10 …cxb5. White could have also tried sacrificing the bishop by 10 Bxb5?! After Black captures the bishop 10 …cxb5 , White will play 11 Nxb5.
In Chapter 2, we were able to see how this game ended, but it is not so easy to decline a sacrifice and see that far in the future. Granted, Black would still be down at least a pawn and have many weaknesses, but he would not have lost so quickly. Maybe he knew all of this and did not want to delay the inevitable. I highly doubt it …. There is only one sound choice: Do you remember what to do now? If you skipped Chapter 2, shame on you. I forgive you, but can you find the move? Position after 11 …Nbd7.
Each and every variation will attempt to apply the elements in some way. So I will bring you up-to-date with more current moves played by the best of the best. We will also analyze some variations, which might not follow our principles so well. None has stood the test of time like e4. The move 1 e4 has been the true benchmark for all openings. This move has been championed and promoted by the majority of World Champions.
These are wonderful footsteps to follow in. What makes 1 e4 the most highly regarded of all time? In Chapter 3, we discussed the effectiveness of e4. Use the elements! It stamps its presence in the center and frees squares for the bishop and queen space and time. If you look ahead, it is possible to castle by the fourth move if 1 e4 is played king safety.
No first move can allow you to castle quicker than 1 e4—only tie. A very element-satisfying move indeed! The Black side must find a suitable reaction.
Notice that this move applies the elements 46 Part 2: It also discourages White from playing 2 d4, building a classic center which can be gained by controlling the four central squares with two pawns.
After 1 …e5 many ideas were tried, but only some were successful. I will also take a look at some popular variations you need to know. All the games in Chapter 4 will begin 1 e4 e5 Diagram 4. After we explore this starting position and the different branches, you should be confident enough to play these positions from either side. Diagram 4. Position after 1 e4 e5. Petrov Defense The Petrov or Petroff Defense is characterized by an overall solid position, conceding a small amount of space to White.
These attributes give this opening the reputation of a reliable defense.
When top Grandmasters need a draw, the Petrov is an opening they often opt to play. The game begins 1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 attacking the e5 pawn. Black plays 2 …Nf6, launching the Petrov Defense Diagram 4. From here, White can take a few different roads. The pawn is taken without hesitation. Chapter 4: Position after 2 …Nf6. Position after 3 Nxe5. No matter how Black responds here, the queen is lost. A logical game continuation is 5 Qxe4 d6 6 d4 dxe5 7 dxe5 Nc6 8 Bb5 Bd7 9 Nc3 10 Bf4, leaving White up a pawn and in better position.
Black is worse off here, but this beats parting with the queen. Black should play the superior 3 …d6. Then White plays 4 Nf3, retreating the knight, and Black can safely move 4 …Nxe4, taking the pawn Diagram 4. However, Black should be very attentive over the next few moves. Black takes the pawn with bravery. If White plays 5 Qe2 now, Black defends just fine with 5 …Qe7. The main line of this system is to play the central advance 5 d4. Sure, you could play this, but I recommend a much simpler approach.
You should try 5 Nc3 Diagram 4. World-class players, including the current World Champion Viswanathan Anand, have had success with 5 Nc3. Position after 4 …Nxe4. Position after 5 Nc3. If Black backs the knight up, time and space will be lost. So Black simply trades knights to avoid disobeying the elements with 5 …Nxc3.
Why should Black avoid playing the natural looking 5 …Bf5 instead? Then White plays 6 dxc3, freeing the bishop on c1. White has doubled c-pawns, but the pieces are more active as a result. Next, Black hustles to castle by playing 6 …Be7. White follows up by playing 7 Bf4, possibly preventing the Black knight from going to e5.
Black continues with 7 …, and White plays 8 Qd2 Diagram 4.
Position after 8 Qd2. After 5 Nc3, Black should not play 5 …Bf5. White will pin this knight 6 Qe2, threatening to win a piece. Black can play 6 …d5, but that runs into 7 d3 winning the knight on e4. Other than 6 …d5, Black can protect the knight with 6 …Qe7, but after 7 Nd5! Black is lost. Also, if Black tries 7 …Qd7, this fails to 8 d3. Ironically, it was Anand who fell into this trap in the late s.
Black can continue 8 …Nd7, heading to c5 space. The bishop on c8 is blocked for only a short time. The game can move forward with 9 Nc5.
Both sides have arranged most of their army, except their light-squared bishops. Scotch Game In the Scotch Game, White plans to exchange blows in the center to gain space, but it takes time for White to solidify the middle of the board. The Scotch is entered after 1 e4 e5 2 Nf3 Nc6 3 d4 Diagram 4.
Position after 4 …Bc5. Black plays 3 …exd4 to get rid of this threat. Then White moves 4 Nxd4, centralizing the knight and regaining the pawn. To do this, White had to make two knight moves, allowing Black to gain time. Black plays the 50 Part 2: Black should refrain from playing 4 …Nxd4?! Black can also play 4 …Nf6 or even 4 …Qh4, but these can become quite complicated and lengthy.
I like the very solid 4 …Bc5 because it forces White to respond to the threat on the knight at d4. White reacts most effectively by playing 5 Be3, developing and defending Diagram 4. Another possible move for White is to play 5 Nxc6. Black could play 5 …bxc6, but better is the intermezzo 5 …Qf6.
The queen move threatens checkmate on the spot, and Black can capture the knight after White defends mate. For example, 6 Qf3 dxc6 and the game is roughly equal. Position after 5 Be3. Chess Language An intermezzo is an inbetween move. Instead of making the automatic capture, a different move is played first.
Another name is zwischenzug, the German word for an in-between move. Returning to 5 Be3 Diagram 4. White plays 6 c3 to safeguard the knight, and Black plays 6 …Nge7, introducing the knight into the game. These moves have been recorded in games dating back to the early s. What are the motives behind 3 Bc4? White targets the f7 square and possibly the g8 square if Black castles kingside.
The bishop cuts across the center, thus preventing d5 by Black. Also, White is ready to castle. Black has two principled and popular responses: Position after 3 Bc4.
We have reached a position played countless times, and White has three main options. One way for White to proceed is 4 c3— the Giuoco Piano. The others are 4 b4 Evans Gambit and 4 In Diagram 4. There is also a reserve idea of playing b4, gaining space on the queenside. Black plays the natural 4 …Nf6, attacking e4 with a tempo and making castling available. White sticks to the initial plan and plays 5 d4 Diagram 4.
Position after 3 …Bc5. Position after 4 c3. Position after 5 d4. It also gives the bishop on c1 squares to roam. Ke6 12 Qxb4 c5 and Black is most likely better here. Is that what White really wants? However, if money were no object, I'd prefer to spend more for a nice used copy of "Guide to Good Chess" 12th ed.
Why do I say that? Because "The Chess Gospel In the publisher's attempt to keep the page count down in "The Chess Gospel All of the original content is still there, but it's just a bit harder to read due to the compressed format, lack of index, and lack of recaps. Regardless of which book s you get, I'd recommend two web sites one has already been mentioned. I really hope that Dan lives at least another 50 years; I'd hate to see this web resource disappear.
Cant tell whether youve got your opponent in check or checkmate? This book will tell you everything you need to know to become a budding Kasparov, from the names of pieces and their movements to tactics and strategies, from advanced maneuvers to setting up chess tournaments and clubs where you can test your skills. Also covered- a history of chess, from its beginnings in ancient India to how it became the worlds most played game; all the basics of the board and the pieces; elementary rules and object of the game; famous openings and well-know tactics; sneak attacks and other tricky plays; exercises that explain strategies and chess-move annotations often found in newspapers ; and advice for using the Internet and computer programs to better your game and tips on starting a chess club or tournament.
Karpov Posts: Replacement link: Caissa Thanks to Karpov and to the original uploader! I have a feeling that a good amount of members are missing up your uploads but they don't want to say anything.Black simply plays 2 …cxd4, and it is not ideal for White to play 3 Qxd4 because this will allow Black to play 3 …Nc6, hitting the queen. The move 7 a4 is a seemingly useless move, but White can win a piece if Black plays a normal developing move such as 7 …Bg4?.
The idea is to play Rhd1 to double the rooks on the d-file. White gained more space because Black fell behind in the development of his pieces because of defending attacks.
Position after 7 Qb3. Is it possible to force the knight from d7? Aramil deals with this well. Despite the other squares the rook and bishop can move to, they are not considered space that they control.
The Marshall initiates with 8 …d5.
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